The Lithium-ion Capacitor is a hybrid energy storage device, classified as an electrochemical capacitor, that combines the rapid charging, high-power capability, and long cycle life of a capacitor with the higher energy density of a battery.
General Capacitor [GC] is introducing a patented Li-ion Capacitor [LIC] that offers the highest energy density of any supercapacitor on the commercial market.
GC 3.8V LIC cells are available in 200F, 1100F, and 3000F samples and an ultrathin 1.5-3F cell is under development.
The GC 3.8V LIC 3000F contains 18 Watthours per kilogram of specific energy and 30 Wh per Liter of volumetric energy density. It is capable of 8 Kilowatts per kg of power density. This model is designed for pulsed power with a max discharge current of 150 amps and a rated lifetime of over 100,000 cycles.
All GC LIC products operate in a voltage range of 3.8 to 2.2 V and a temperature range of -40° to 65° C.
LICs are safer to use than lithium batteries and are manufactured using only environmentally-friendly methods and materials.
Higher Voltage and Energy Density
The LIC cell is composed of activated carbon cathodes and graphitic anodes that are pre-lithiated using proprietary techniques. The lithiated anode lowers the charge potential which results in an overall higher max cell voltage of 3.8V, compared to only 2.7V of conventional supercapacitors.
Current GC prototype LICs are capable of ~20 Wh/kg of specific energy density, which is a marked improvement over 6-7 Wh/kg of top-performing EDLCs.
Excellent Cycling Peformance
LICs have a cycle life of over 100,000 cycles while retaining at least 80% of initial capacitance. In comparison, most rechargeable batteries are only capable of approximately 1000 charge cycles within that threshold.
Due to their higher voltage and rapid discharge, LICs are well-suited for hybrid energy storage systems in which capacitors are used in tandem with batteries. Capacitors provide peak power assistance and prevent deep discharges from batteries. This improves overall system performance, efficiency, and lifetime.
LICs exhibit a loss of ~5% charge from maximum voltage over 3-months, while EDLCs typically have a 20% loss over only a 1-month period.
Wide Temperature Range
LICs are tested under extreme temperature conditions to simulate all possible applications. Testing includes environments of 65° C to simulate electric vehicle engines and wind/solar farms, down to freezing temperatures of -40° C to simulate arctic and aerospace operating conditions.
LIC technology is inherently much safer to use than lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion capacitors do not contain lithium metal oxide electrodes like those in Li-ion batteries, which can trigger thermal runaways.
LICs are safe, low maintenance, environmentally-friendly, and aren't as heavily regulated as commercial lithium-ion batteries in regards to safety and transportation.